Rather elections in africa based on his findings are more than just the goal of a transition toward democracy or merely a formal procedure the inception of multiparty elections usually. Political scientist staffan i lindberg gathers data from every nationally contested election in africa from 1989 to 2003 covering 232 elections in 44 countries he argues that democratizing nations learn to become democratic through repeated democratic behavior even if their elections are often flawed. Lindberg s democracy and elections in africa amazonde lindberg staffan i fremdsprachige bucher. The aim of this article is to assess the democratization process in africa in general and the multi party elections in particular the decolonization process in africa 1960s and 1970s which was. As africa gets set to host a dozen presidential or general elections in 2020 leaders seeking to evade term limits democratic resiliency in the face of armed conflict and the increasingly overt efforts by external actors to shape outcomes emerge as recurring themes
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